Fertility Wellness

Infertility and its Causes

What is Infertility?

Infertility is when a male or a female is unable to play their role in fertilization. The male or female reproductive organs are unable to achieve pregnancy even after a year of unprotected intercourse, it is termed as the state of infertility.

Infertility could be because of different reasons in both men and women. Infertility in either of the genders could lead to failure in conceiving. So, let us talk about what causes infertility in women and men.

Male Infertility Causes

What does infertility mean in men?

There are a variety of reasons that could cause male infertility. It is usually diagnosed by doing semen analysis. By semen analysis, one can find out the sperm release concentration, movement (motility), and morphology (shape) of the sperm.

By knowing these factors, one can study the reproductive function of the male individual and understand the main reason behind their infertility.

Disruption of Ejaculatory Function


  • Trauma to the testes could lead to low sperm counts and production levels.
  • Intoxication and drug abuse.
  • Certain medications and pharmaceutical drugs could affect sperm production.
  • Undergoing medical conditions autoimmune disorders, diabetes, infections, and fibrosis could be another one of the reasons for testicular failure.
  • Sometimes the veins in the testicles enlarge and get heated. This condition is called Varicoceles. This overheating alters the sperm’s shape and concentration.
  • Treatment involving chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery involving the reproductive organs is another obvious reason.

Hormonal Infertility

Reasons: Pituitary and hypothalamus glands are located in the brain. The hormones released by these glands regulate the functions related to the men’s reproductive system. There are also cases of hormonal disorders where these glands are at the risk of cancer and tumor.

Sometimes, the rise and down in estrogen and testosterone levels also happen which affects the sperm count level.

Also Read: How to Prevent Hair Loss for Men

Genetic Infertility Disorders

Reasons: Klinefelter’s syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, and Y-chromosome microdeletion, and such other genetic disorders affect sperm production in men.

What Causes Infertility in Women?

Women have a reproductive system whose functions are distributed in different organs. Every organ’s function is dependent on the other. The three main organs that contribute to this are the ovaries, fallopian tube, and uterus. A woman cannot conceive to get pregnant if either of these organs is facing some defect.

Infertility Due to Ovaries

This is related to ovulation in females. The ovulation cycle is very important for achieving pregnancy. If a woman is facing irregular periods continuously, she could be infertile and the ovulation is not falling in the 28-day cycle.

Here are some ovulation disorders that could lead to infertility in women:

  • PCOS: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is when women do not ovulate. They face hormonal imbalance as testosterone hormone levels hike. Symptoms of PCOS are unexpected facial hair growth, obesity, and acne.
  • POI: Primary/ Premature Ovarian Insufficiency happens when the ovaries fail before 40 years of age. It could be genetic or due to exposure to radiation.
  • Excessive Prolactin: Too much prolactin by the pituitary decreases the estrogen levels that could cause infertility.
  • Dysfunction of the Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is responsible for regulating the ovulation cycle through the follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. An alter in these hormones due to body weight, stress, or other hormones could result in a disturbance in ovulation.

Fallopian Tube Infertility

  • Infection in the Fallopian tube and Uterus: Pelvic inflammatory disease due to STI, fungal infection could lead to infertility in severe cases.
  • Endometriosis: It occurs when tissues start growing in other places than the uterus that can block the fallopian tubes. The sperms never reach the eggs for fertilization as the pathway is blocked. So, infertility occurs.

Other Causes of Infertility in Women:

  • Fibroids
  • Abnormally shaped uterus since birth
  • Narrow or damaged cervix
  • Amenorrhea

Summing Up on Infertility and its Causes

If you have been looking up what can cause infertility and what does infertility means, you must have found the answers. However, if you are looking for a solution due to infertility because of any of these causes, it is best to consult your doctor for the best possible solutions. Apart from that, there are various options of adoption and surrogacy depending on the cause of infertility.

[Cautionary note: In all of the above cases please consult a practicing specialist & get checked before taking any medicines.]

Disclaimer: This article is only written for informational purposes only. Users must not view the content as medical advice in any way. Users are also required to ’NOT SELF MEDICATE’ and always consult a practicing specialist before taking any medicines or undergoing any treatment. DivyaAyushCare and the author will not be responsible for any act or omission by the User arising from the User’s interpretation of the content.

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